Functional Neurosurgery is the department that evaluates and surgically treats conditions with altered central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) physiology (normal function) but the anatomy may or may not be normal.
Conditions treated by Functional Neurosurgery
Psychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder
Chronic pain (including cancer pain and failed back surgery syndrome)
Treatment resistant neurological disorders
Although most of the cases of epilepsy can be managed by drug therapy but some cases may need surgical intervention. The surgical procedures performed for the treatment of epilepsy include:
- Implants for long-term invasive monitoring
- Stereotactic EEG
- Resective surgeries, such as lobectomy and seizure focus resection
- Disconnection surgeries, such ascorpus callosotomy
- Vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) implants
- Responsive neurostimulator (RNS) implants
- Stereotactic laser ablation
Movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and essential tremor that have not responded to medical management can be managed by Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Specific procedures performed include:
- Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) in Parkinson’s Disease
- Globus Pallidus (GPi) for dystonia or Parkinson’s disease
- Ventral Intermedius Nucleus (VIM) for tremor in essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease or other movement disorders.
Chronic pain cases that re not relieved by conservative therapies may respond to following procedures:
- Spinal cord stimulation
- Occipital and supraorbital nerve stimulation
- Intrathecal pain pump implantation
- Microvascular decompression
Patients suffering from spasticity due to disorders like cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury etc. may benefit by implanting intrathecal baclofen pumps.
Patients with severe and medically intractable Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Major Depression can potentially benefit from any of the following surgery.
- Deep brain stimulation for OCD & Depression
- Vagal nerve stimulation for Depression